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Monday, 17 October 2016

Importance of Mooting

Want to understand the nitty-gritty of various laws and get hands-on experience? A mock court session can do the trick.

Moot courts, however considered an additional curricular action in the field of law, are given a great deal of significance by faculties and students. A mock court, in which anecdotal cases are contended upon, for the most part involves a group of three students who are relied upon to get ready in the interest of both the sides — the prosecution as well as the defense. Members are by and large known as "Mooters"

Out of a group of three, two students go about as Speakers, while the third one goes about as a Researcher. Speakers show the oral contention and the Researcher is not permitted to talk amid the procedure. Nonetheless, the Researcher goes about as the foundation of Speakers. In the event that anytime the Speakers get stuck amid the procedures, the Researcher needs to rapidly discover the answer and after that present it to the Speakers on a bit of paper.

In the preparatory rounds, memorials are exhibited; in view of which just a couple groups qualify. After the accommodation of the memorials, groups are given a period confine in which they are relied upon to get ready for their oral pleadings satisfactorily.

Mooters are encouraged to concentrate on the issue and practice however much as could be expected. It is vital to comprehend the law identified with the issue the moot is managing. The moot court's arrangement begins with research, goes ahead to drafting lastly comes to oral arguments.

Mooting does not merely mean defending and arguing for one’s point of view. It also teaches students the basic rules that are to be followed in a court.

Some importance and effectiveness of moot court are as follows
- The most critical thing mooting gives is viewpoint. It is stunning how there can be two to a great degree solid sides to similar fact sheet. This is where the line can be seen between the privilege and the wrong obscure; profound quality is something that does not, and ought not, direct choices. Mooting shines logical and speech abilities. It is a reasonable and handy method for being set up for the future that holds up after school.
- A moot court helps in improving legitimate information, as well as in catching up on correspondence, drafting, lawful research, and presentation aptitudes. Above all, it helps us in expanding certainty. Subsequent to showing moots, students experience genuine court procedures.
- Moot courts are an exhilarating experience and give the certainty to present case before genuine judges.
- If an student needs to build up his/her legitimate aptitudes, then mooting makes a difference. Be that as it may, it ought not be the sole thing in which understudies take an interest in school.
- Students get the chance to get issues all alone for which they require help of faculty, as well.
- Helps in the holistic development of students.

Monday, 10 October 2016

REPORT ON CII (Confederation of Indian Industry) - INVEST NORTH

Under the CII conference discussion was done regarding INVEST NORTH. In the conference certain points were discussed. The northern region is among the largest regions in India comprising eight states — Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh and UT Chandigarh. The Northern region has consistently outperformed India’s national average in terms of GDP, with the region accounting for approximately 26 per cent of national GDP. However, sustaining this growth rate will require greater investments, continuous support of the government, and expansion of infrastructure, accessibility to educated professionals and access to skilled labour.

The inaugural ceremony of CII Invest North started by the Ms Rumjhum Chatterjee, chairperson, CII Northern Region and Group Managing Director Feedback Infra Pvt limited. In the inaugural session there was information related to the certain website given which is mycii.in. This website is for the Business leads and provides financial supervision; provide online program and many other useful things. After this the CEO of KPMG India Mr. Richard Rekhy talk about the Compendium of opportunities in Northern states’ report, CII along with KPMG present an overview of the Northern region and summarize the advantages of investing and doing business across the respective states. Identified within this report, are the unique combination of complementary strengths of high economic growth rate, abundance of natural resources, growing infrastructure, rising consumer demand and continuous government support.

After this there was a release of CII Investment Climate by the Hon’ble Minister of State and launch of Coffee table book on Uttarakhand by the Hon’ble Chief Minister, Government of Uttarakhand.  After the inaugural ceremony the special state plenary was addressed by the Mr. Viren Popli Cheif operating officer Mahindra and Mahindra who give the welcome remark.

Under this there was a presentation on Investment Climate, Policies and Investment Opportunities in the State which was Given by Mr. Anirudh Tewari Principal Secretary Industries and Commerce and non – conventional energy and Chief Executive officer Punjab Bureau of Investment Promotion Government Of Punjab. Under this discussed the following points


Punjab was originally known to be an agrarian economy, however the manufacturing and service sectors have gradually increased their contribution over the years. The state shares its border with Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the northeast, Haryana to the south, Rajasthan to the southwest and Pakistan to the west.


Following the main points were discussed throughout two days.

Punjab
Hub for textile, light engineering goods, IT and ITeS and Automotive industries.
New industrial policy to boost industrial growth.
Rich and productive agro base ideal for agro & food processing industries.

Chandigarh
Ideal for consumption based industries retail with per capita income of Rs. 140,073.
Has emerged as leading IT & ITeS and Financial service base.
Chandigarh- The City beautiful is a major tourism hub.
Asia's largest Fastener hub.

Rajasthan
Favorable for Mineral based industries, renewable energy & petrochemicals.
Tourism destinations with rich culture and historical background.
Proposed Western Dedicated Freight Corridor and DMIC.

Uttarakhand
Highest growth rate in secondary sector at 23.8% CAGR lead by manufacturing.
Hub of Pharma, automotive and engineering goods.
Rich hydro power potential of 25,000 MW.
Rich flora and fauna-base for tourism, horticulture & floriculture.

Jammu & Kashmir
Picturesque tourism destinations.
Huge potential in Horticulture, Sericulture, Floriculture & fruit processing.
Significant potential in Food Processing, IT/ITES, Electronics Manufacturing.
Rich hydro power potential of 20,000 MW.

Himachal Pradesh
Baddi, Barotiwala and Nalagarh- one of the leading industrial regions.
Rich hydro power potential of 25,000 MW.
Rich flora and fauna- base for tourism, horticulture & floriculture.

Delhi
Per Capita Income of Rs. 175,812- ideal for retail and tourism.
Hub of education, healthcare and skill Development.
World class Airport, roads & rails.

Haryana
Robust Industrial Areas & Estate and Model Industrial towns.
Gurgaon- Hub of IT & ITeS, BPO, Financial Services, engineering & Automotive.

Uttar Pradesh
Home to 16.5% of India's population, huge potential for consumption based industries.
Skilled, Semi-skilled and unskilled workforce.
IT & ITeS, Agro & Food Processing, Tourism, Mineral based industries, Textile, Sugar etc.

After this there was a interaction session and the CII conference end with the vote thanks which was given by Mr. Naveen Munjal Managing Director Hero Cycles. 



Wednesday, 18 May 2016

Treat Daughter-in-law as Family, not Maid: Supreme Court


Daughter-in-law should be treated as a family member and not housemaid, and she cannot be "thrown out of her matrimonial home at any time", the Supreme Court has said, while expressing concern over instances of brides being burnt and tortured in the country. The apex court said a bride must be respected in her matrimonial home as it "reflects the sensitivity of a civilized society."

A daughter-in-law is to be treated as a member of the family with warmth and affection and not as a stranger with respectable and ignoble indifference. She should not be treated as a house maid. No impression should be given that she can be thrown out of her matrimonial home at any time," a bench of justices KS Radhakrishnan and Dipak Misra said.

"Respect of a bride in her matrimonial home glorifies the solemnity and sanctity of marriage, reflects the sensitivity of a civilized society and eventually epitomizes her aspirations dreamt of in nuptial bliss. "But the manner in which sometimes the bride is treated in many a home by the husband, in-law and the relatives creates a feeling of emotional numbness in society," it said.

The apex court made the observations while upholding the sentence of seven-year jail term to a man for torturing his wife, who committed suicide. The bench said it was a matter of great concern that brides in several cases were being treated with total insensitivity, destroying their desire to live.

"It is a matter of grave concern and shame that brides are burned or otherwise their life-sparks are extinguished by torture, both physical and mental, because of demand of dowry and insatiable greed and sometimes, sans demand of dowry, because of cruelty and harassment meted out to the nascent brides, treating them with total insensitivity, destroying their desire to live and forcing them to commit suicide, a brutal self-humiliation of life," the bench said.

Monday, 16 May 2016

Case comment - Soni kumari vs. Deepak kumar


In India marriage is a sacrament. It is a relation between two souls.  But due to certain reasons best known to the husband and wife, if marriage tie cannot continued, the legislature thought it better to break down the marriage tie, if it is in the interest of both of them by mutual consent. Under the Hindu Marriage Act,1955 divorce by mutual consent is allowed but statutory period of six months has to be observed. In this case waiver in six months period was required by the parties.

In this case, the appellant wife and the respondent were married as per Hindu rites and ceremonies in 2009. Due to temperamental differences, trouble arose in their marriage and the parties started living separately since February, 2014. Subsequently they filed a mutual divorce petition under section 13-B (1) of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 in Saket District Court, Delhi. The Court allowed the first motion on mutually agreed terms but rejected the prayer of the parties for waiver of the statutory period of six months before the second motion could be filed. Therefore, on the question of waiver of the six month period, the matter reached the apex court. The waiver was desired because the respondent husband was to leave India owing to his professional obligations. The tickets for the journey were confirmed and it would not have been possible for him to return within a period of one to two years. This, therefore , would have jeopardized the divorced proceedings by causing the first motion to lapse.

The court noted with approval the proceedings in the court below. The only issue that remained to be answered was as to whether it was a fit case for the court to exercise its power under article 142 of the Constitution of India. The court relied on Vimi Vinod Chopra v. Vinod Gulshan Chopra (2013) 15 SCC 547 wherein it was observed that using the power under article 142 would be a prudent way to end multiple disputes between the parties and ensure complete justice. Further, court also took note of Devinder Singh Narulla v. Meenakshi Nangia (2012) 8 SCC 580, wherein it was observed: We have carefully considered the submissions made on behalf of the parties and have also considered our decision in Anil Kumar Jain case (2009) 10 SCC 415. It is no doubt true that the legislature had in its wisdom stipulated a cooling off period of six months from the date of filing of a petition for mutual divorce till such divorce is actually granted, with the intention that it would save the institution of marriage. It is also true that the intention of the legislature cannot be faulted with, but there may be occasions when in order to do complete justice to the parties it becomes necessary for this Court to invoke its powers under article 142 in an irreconcilable situation. After referring to the above cases, the apex court drew two conclusions. First, it opined that irretrievable breakdown of marriage is not a specified ground for divorce under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Nevertheless the apex court may invoke the same in cases before it when it comes to exercise of power under article 142 of the Constitution and thereupon the court can waive the statutory period of six months stipulated in section 13-B of the Act of 1955. But this power of waiver is only available to the Supreme Court and not to any of the courts below. Secondly, this power under article 142 can be used even to convert a proceeding under section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, into proceeding under section 13-B and pass a decree for mutual divorce, without waiting for the statutory period of six months. However, other courts cannot exercise this power.

Under normal circumstances, the parties have to wait for a six month period between the two motions for mutual divorce and their free consent to part ways amicably and on mutually agreeable terms has to subsist for the whole of the period. This period can also serve as a period of introspection and for making attempts at reconciliation. However, the apex court can, under suitable circumstances, waive off this period of six months as well. Based on these considerations the Apex court found it a fit case for exercising its power under article 142 and allowed the appeal by waiving the six month period. It must be stated that marriage is no doubt a sacred institution to be preserved by all means but it should not lead to suffering and loss of an individual’s happiness. Such a union can neither be in the interest of children nor of the spouses.

In this regard, Cheshire says, Geoffrey C. Cheshire observes...Divorce since it distinguishes the family unity, is of course, a social evil in itself , but it is a necessary evil, it’s better to wreck the unity of family than to wreck the future happiness of parties by binding them to companionship that has become odious. Membership of a family founded on antagonism can bring little profit even to the children. (G.C.Cheshire, “The International Validity of Divorces,” 61 Law Quarterly Review, 352 (1945).

Ending such loveless, soul-less and tragic unions is in the best interests of the concerned individuals and the society. There may be cases where the hope of reunion or reconciliation or of matters cooling off can be so low that it is best to waive off the statutory period of six months by using the extraordinary power given to Supreme Court. There can be cases where parties have been living separately for long periods or cases involving extraordinary levels of physical or mental cruelty or other cases which warrant use of such power. It must be noted however that this power ought not to be on a regular basis so as to nullify the express wish of the legislature as expressed in the statue. Also, perhaps the legislature should look at grounds realities and work on a suitable amendment.


In this judgement the Apex Court has rightly expressed that judiciary cannot go against the express will of the legislature, but it can mould the law in the exceptional social situations in the best interest of the society.        

Author
Dr. Hari Mohan Mittal,
Professor - School of Law

Tuesday, 10 May 2016

PRESIDENT RULE AND SCOPE OF JUDICIAL INTERVENTION



Federalism and democracy are the two pillars which have to be honoured. The origins of Article 356 are in the Government of India Act, 1935 and reflect the superior powers of the governor general over the elected provisional governments. The powers of the executive used in before democracy came to India and are still there. If an elected government of the state level can be removed by the government at the centre, and that decision can be overturned by the judiciary where lays the final authority.

 The government at the centre however can only be removed by a vote of confidence in Parliament. There is no President rule at the centre. So democracy rule is at the centre but not in the state. A debate about 365 is urgent. If India is a democratic country, all legislatures are equal. If it is a federation, the centre has to respect the states equally. Article 365 provides that if the President either on the receipt of a report from the Governor of a state or otherwise is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance the provisions of this Constitution, he may make a Proclamation to the effect. The only ground on which a proclamation can be made under Article 356 is the failure of the Constitutional Government in the state. It includes failure on the part of the state to comply with to give effect to the directions given by the Union Government. Since the commencement of the Constitution Article 356 has been invoked on more than 110 occasions. Expect on few occasions the President has acted only when the Governor of the State has reported the failure constitutional machinery in the state. Usually President’s rule, invoking Article 356, has been imposed under the following situations-
a) A situation resulting from instability of the State Government.
b) A situation resulting from law and order problems.
c) Frequent defections and change of loyalties by the legislators.
d) On the ground of corruption, maladministration, misuse of power for partisan ends
e) The defeat of the ruling party in a state, at the Lok Sabha election.

Under Article 356 (3) a proclamation imposing Rule shall be laid before each House of Parliament and shall cease to operate at the expiration of two months, unless before the expiration of that period it has been approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament. The High Court had many options in dealing with the writ petitions challenging President’s Rule. It is extremely unlikely that the government will have the requisite majority in the Rajya Sabha, in which case President’s rule will cease to operate after expiration of two months.

The Single Bench of Uttarakhand High Court on 29th March,2016 ordered a floor test in the assembly and gave ousted Chief Minister Harish Rawat a chance to prove his legislative majority in the hill state that is under President’s Rule. Uttarakhand came under President’s rule, a day before Rawat was to prove his majority in the house. Hearing the petition by Rawat, the Court also said that all nine Congress rebels who were disqualified by the speaker will be allowed to take part in the vote. It said the result of the voting should be presented to the court. The court has ordered a registrar to oversee the vote in the assembly. “The High Court accepts the point that despite President’s Rule there is enough scope for judicial review to allow a floor test to take place.” The Uttarakhand political crisis began when nine Congress legislators, including former Chief Minister Vijay Bahuguna, whom Rawat replaced, revolted against the chief minister and turned to BJP. If President’s Rule is declared unconstitutional the floor becomes irrelevant and meaningless. Courts cannot and should not prevaricate nor procrastinate when such momentous issues arise, always remembering that its role is to determine the constitutionality of President’s Rule not its wisdom or morality. Capping a nine-day high-voltage political drama, the Centre on 27th March,2016 brought Uttarakhand under President’s rule citing a constitutional breakdown in the wake of a rebellion in the ruling Congress. President Pranab Mukherjee signed the proclamation under Article 356 of the Constitution dismissing the Congress government headed by Harish Rawat and placing the Assembly under suspended animation this morning on the recommendation of the Union Cabinet.

According to Article 356, President’s rule can be imposed in a state if a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. The expression “breakdown of constitutional machinery” has not been defined in the Constitution. It can happen due to political reasons such as hung assembly, the government losing majority in the assembly, failure of any political grouping to form a government, defections and break-up of coalition or because of insurgency etc. Whatever may be the reason, the President has to be satisfied about of breakdown of constitutional machinery in the state. Generally, the governor sends a report in this regard to the Centre and it’s his/her report that forms the basis for the Union Cabinet’s recommendation to the President for invoking Article 356 to impose President’s rule.

However, the provision also says that the President can take such a decision even “otherwise” (i.e. even in the absence of governor’s report). But in any case, the President has to be satisfied that the constitutional machinery has broken down in the state. While sending a report to the Centre, the governor is not supposed to go by the advice of the state cabinet and is exercises his or her own discretion. On the contrary, the President has to go by the advice of the Union Cabinet. But he can seek clarifications from the council of ministers. Once President’s rule is imposed, the assembly ceases to function and the state comes under the Central government’s direct control. The assembly is generally kept in suspended animation. The powers of the state assembly become exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament. The executive power shifts from the council of ministers to the governor.

Once President Rule is imposed, it must be approved by Parliament within a period of two months. It can’t last for more than six months unless its extension is approved by Parliament.

SR Bommai case
In the SR Bommai case, the Supreme Court ruled in 1994 that courts can’t question the Union Cabinet’s advice to the President but they can question the material behind the satisfaction of the President regarding breakdown of constitutional machinery. It also said that the use of Article 356 was justified only when there was a breakdown of constitutional machinery and not that of administrative machinery. The Supreme Court in January 2006 declared the dissolution of the Bihar assembly as null and void in the Buta Singh case. It held that the governor’s report could not be taken at face value and must be verified by the council of ministers before being used as the basis for imposing President’s rule. The “drastic and extreme action under Article 356” cannot be justified on whims and fancies of the governor and the council of ministers should not accept it as “gospel truth”.

 A Division Bench of the Uttarakhand High Court on Wednesday stayed the previous order of the Single Bench for conducting a floor test to determine the majority in the House.  In 1994, the Supreme Court in the landmark SR Bommai vs Union of India case held, "In all cases where the support of the Ministry is claimed to have been withdrawn by some legislators, the proper course for testing the strength of the Ministry is holding the test on the floor of the House."They added, "the assessment of the strength of the Ministry is not a matter of private opinion of any individual be he the Governor or the President. It is capable of being demonstrated and ascertained publicly in the House. Hence when such a demonstration is possible, it is not open to bypass it and instead depend upon the subjective satisfaction of the Governor or the President. Such private assessment is an anathema to the democratic principle, apart from being open to serious objections of personal mala fides”. The court also made clear the circumstances under which the decision to impose President’s Rule can be made without going for a floor test. The court held, “The sole exception to this will be a situation of all-pervasive violence where the Governor comes to the conclusion — and records the same in his report — that for the reasons mentioned by him, a free vote is not possible." These guidelines laid down in the SR Bommai vs Union of India judgement were not even considered in the Uttarakhand case. On 27 March, just a day before the vote of confidence in the Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly was to be taken, and Chief Minister Harish Rawat was to prove majority support for his government, the Centre dismissed the Congress government and imposed President's Rule, citing a breakdown of governance. With the disqualification, the strength of the 70-member Uttarakhand Assembly has been reduced to 61.

When the Uttarakhand High Court staying the floor test, this question will prop-up again when the incumbents will be asked to prove their strength. Whether the nine disqualified candidates should be allowed to vote in the floor test should be debated on the basis of legal and constitutional provisions. If a little caution had been observed while reading the Constitutional provisions; the guidelines in the SR Bommai vs Union of India had been followed, then the common man would have retained his trust in the democratic process of this country. The apprehensions regarding the probable misuse of Article 356 (which empowers the Union to take over the government of the state on the recommendation of the governor or otherwise) can be visibly gauged from the above Constituent Assembly debate — the apprehension of which to a great extent has come to fruition with the abject misuse of the provision on numerous occasions, since the enactment of the Constitution. However, it was in the SR Bommai case in 1994 that the Apex Court made the indiscriminate and arbitrary use of the Article 356 almost impossible by laying down certain guidelines to be taken into account before invoking the Article 356. But time and again, the principles laid down in the landmark judgment have been openly flouted, the most recent being the imposition of President’s Rule in Uttarakhand.

Among various directives issued in the Bommai case, the two that had the most far-reaching ramifications were that it allowed judicial review of the decision of the imposition of the President’s Rule and made it imperative that the majority enjoyed by the council of ministers be tested on the floor of the House, which was not followed in Uttarakhand and in many cases in the past. Further, the High Court has power of judicial review as to whether there has been malafide exercise of power while imposing the President Rule or not?


Therefore, better course on the part of Division Bench of High Court could have been, if it would have given a chance to prove the majority by council of ministers on the floor of House in Uttarakhand.

Author
Dr. Hari Mohan Mittal,
Professor - School of Law

Saturday, 30 April 2016

A Rezendvous with Delhi



From milestone to milestone the next on agenda was an industrial visit to Delhi, as always Intellect fused with leisure to rejuvenate the mind and the spirits as the end term exams are on the threshold.

This trip was for all the students of B.Com (hons) and BSC,to Delhi. Since the students were an amalgamation of the science stream and the commerce stream, the situation looked paradoxical to begin with, but as the mind opened and discussion happened planning the visit for the 30th of April 2016, it came to be understood that irrespective of the stream, all students today studying in professional institutes with a Global teaching context, need to be given opportunities at the Market as a very large horizon, which no longer embraces only degrees and marks, but a mind full of knowledge and practical approaches.

The visit was thereafter planned for a visit to the PARLE factory. The name in itself left all in awe as they headed to visit one of the oldest, yet most popular Brand in India.

On the 29th of April 2016 all the students along with Dr. Kiran Parrek and Mr. Sunil Bhardwaj left for Delhi by train. They embarked for the industrial visit after freshening up in the pre planned arena, by a hired coach. The drive to the factory witnessed a lot of zeal, interactions with each other and the faculty as per each ones anxiety and levels of inquisitiveness.

As they all approached PARLE it was a dream come true. Even before they entered the premises it was all over the skies via what’s app and twitter and hike, that this was a bundle of small hurricanes full of enigma and eagerness to learn.

After salutations and security formalities they were taken on a guided tour from the manufacturing units, quality control till packaging. It was appalling to see their faces as they with dedication watched the process of the baking of their Best Friend since they were born PARLE.

The goodbyes were not very happy but without a choice. The next was a visit to shopping mall which is an all time favourite for some eats and shopping.

The final countdown as the red carpet kept unfolding was the IPL match to be watched by our students live at the Firoz Shah Kotla Stadium in New Delhi. The excitement was not the match , but the fact that all were together and togetherness breeds happiness, learning. Team work. Wisdom, and all these are the pride of RNB Global.

After the match, as all had applauded the Delhi team for winning and each has made his/ her own efforts to catch a view of their heroes, all mounted the coach heading for the hotel for freshening up and dinner and then were home bound as they left for the station to board the train back to pavilion, Bikaner.

1st of May 2016 being a Sunday all had enough time to recoup, but by Sunday evening the memories of this journey of tales and events all wrapped in one day, with less time yrt a lot of content was all over the media.

Wednesday, 27 April 2016

NATIONAL FOOD AND SECURITY ACT 2013 - Analytical Study

IINTRODUCTION:  The Government of India has notified the National Food Security Act, 2013 on 10th September, 2013 with the objective to provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity. The Bill seeks “to provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity and for matters connected therewith and incidental thereto”.    The Act provides for coverage of up to 75% of the rural population and up to 50% of the urban population for receiving subsidized food grains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), thus covering about two-thirds of the population. The eligible persons will be entitled to receive 5 Kgs of food grains per person per month at subsidised prices of Rs. 3/2/1 per Kg for rice/wheat/coarse grains. The existing Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) households, which constitute the poorest of the poor, will continue to receive 35 Kgs of food grains per household per month. The Act also has a special focus on the nutritional support to women and children. Besides meal to pregnant women and lactating mothers during pregnancy and six months after the child birth, such women will also be entitled to receive maternity benefit of not less than Rs. 6,000. Children up to 14 years of age will be entitled to nutritious meals as per the prescribed nutritional standards. In case of non-supply of entitled food grains or meals, the beneficiaries will receive food security allowance.

Women Empowerment: Eldest woman of the household of age 18 years or above to be the head of the household for the purpose of issuing of ration cards.

 The Act also contains provisions for setting up of grievance redressal mechanism at the District and State levels. Separate provisions have also been made in the Act for ensuring transparency and accountability. The National Food Security Act, 2013 (NFSA) provides that every State Government shall, by notification, constitute a State Food Commission for the purpose of monitoring and review of implementation of the Act. It has been decided that in case a State decides to set up State Food Commission on exclusive basis, Central Government will provide one time financial assistance for non building assets for State Food Commission. Accordingly a component viz., "Assistance to States/UTs for non-building assets for State Food Commissions” has been included under the 12th Plan Umbrella Scheme on "Strengthening of PDS & Capacity Building, Quality Control, Consultancies & Research” of the Department. Under this component, the assistance is available for non-building assets such as furniture, office equipment, computers etc. These may include computers, air-conditioners, photocopiers, Fax machines, telephones, EPABX system, tables, chairs, storage units etc. Under the scheme, assistance is not provided for any construction activity or any recurring expenses.

Historical Background:
“Umbrella” Orders

The Apex Court has issued a number of interim orders from time to time for implementation of various welfare schemes.While most of the interim orders concern specific schemes (e.g. ICDS or Public Distribution System), some of them apply “across the board” to all the relevant schemes. We shall refer to these orders as “umbrella orders”.  Other important umbrella orders include the following:

1. Responsibility for compliance: Chief Secretaries of the concerned states “shall be held responsible” for any “persistent default in compliance with orders”.
2. Accountability to Gram Sabhas: “The Gram Sabhas are entitled to conduct a social audit into all Food/Employment schemes and to report all instances of misuse of funds to the respective implementing authorities, who shall on receipt of such complaints, investigate and take appropriate action in accordance with law.”
3. Access to information: “The Gram Sabhas are empowered to monitor the implementation of the various schemes and have access to relevant information relating to, inter alia, selection of beneficiaries and the disbursement of benefits.”
4. Dissemination of Court orders: 12 Chief Secretaries have been directed “to translate and permanently display” the orders dated 28th November, 2001 and 8th May, 2002 “on all the Gram Panchayats, school buildings and fair price shops”. The Central Government is to give “wide publicity” to these orders through All India Radio and Doordarshan.
5. Schemes not to be discontinued: “No scheme covered by the orders made by this Court… shall be discontinued or restricted in any way without the prior approval of this Court.”13
6. Full utilization of grain quotas: “We direct all the State Governments to forthwith lift the entire allotment of food grains from the Central Government under the various Schemes and disburse the same in accordance with the Schemes.”14
7. Jurisdiction of High Courts in the Right to Food Case: It is important to note here that since the Supreme Court passed these landmark orders, a number of cases have been filed in various High Courts across the country. These writ petitions were filed not only by right to food activists and citizens concerned with the denial of entitlements to poor people in their respective states, but also by vested interest groups (like contractors) who were adversely affected by the Supreme Court orders. In some cases (notably in Rajasthan and Delhi), the High Court’s refused to entertain these petitions since the matter was sub-judicial in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court then, in a significant order dated 1st May 2006 in this case passed an order which settled this issue of jurisdiction of the High Courts in this case. The Supreme Court allowed High Courts to entertain petitions on the “right to food case”, and directed that High Courts could entertain Writ Petitions on the right to food and deal with them appropriately.

Salient Features of the Food Security Act:
Coverage and entitlement under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS): Up to 75% of the rural population and 50% of the urban population will be covered under TPDS, with uniform entitlement of 5 kg per person per month. However, since Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) households constitute poorest of the poor, and are presently entitled to 35 kg per household per month, entitlement of existing AAY households will be protected at 35 kg per household per month.

State-wise coverage: Corresponding to the all India coverage of 75% and 50% in the rural and urban areas, State-wise coverage will be determined by the Central Government. Planning Commission has determined the State-wise coverage by using the NSS Household Consumption Survey data for 2011-12.

Subsidised prices under TPDS and their revision: Food grains under TPDS will be made available at subsidised prices of Rs. 3/2/1 per kg for rice, wheat and coarse grains for a period of three years from the date of commencement of the Act. Thereafter prices will be suitably linked to Minimum Support Price (MSP).

In case, any State’s allocation under the Act is lower than their current allocation, it will be protected up to the level of average off take under normal TPDS during last three years, at prices to be determined by the Central Government. Existing prices for APL households i.e. Rs. 6.10 per kg for wheat and Rs 8.30 per kg for rice has been determined as issue prices for the additional allocation to protect the average off take during last three years.

Identification of Households: Within the coverage under TPDS determined for each State, the work of identification of eligible households is to be done by States/UTs.

Nutritional Support to women and children: Pregnant women and lactating mothers and children in the age group of 6 months to 14 years will be entitled to meals as per prescribed nutritional norms under Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and Mid-Day Meal (MDM) schemes. Higher nutritional norms have been prescribed for malnourished children up to 6 years of age.

Maternity Benefit: Pregnant women and lactating mothers will also be entitled to receive maternity benefit of not less than Rs. 6,000.

Grievance Redressal Mechanism: Grievance redressal mechanism at the District and State levels. States will have the flexibility to use the existing machinery or set up separate mechanism.

Cost of intra-State transportation & handling of food grains and FPS Dealers' margin: Central Government will provide assistance to States in meeting the expenditure incurred by them on transportation of food grains within the State, its handling and FPS dealers’ margin as per norms to be devised for this purpose.

Transparency and Accountability: Provisions have been made for disclosure of records relating to PDS, social audits and setting up of Vigilance Committees in order to ensure transparency and accountability.
Food Security Allowance: Provision for food security allowance to entitled beneficiaries in case of non-supply of entitled food grains or meals.

Penalty: Provision for penalty on public servant or authority, to be imposed by the State Food Commission, in case of failure to comply with the relief recommended by the District Grievance Redressal Officer.

 SUPREME COURT ORDERS 2013 ON THE RIGHT TO FOOD
1. “The Gram Sabhas are entitled to conduct a social audit into all Food/Employment schemes and to report all instances of misuse of funds to the respective implementing authorities, who shall on receipt of such complaints, investigate and take appropriate action in accordance with law.”
2. “On a complaint being made to the… CEO/Collector regarding non compliance of the orders of this Court the Concerned CEO/Collector shall record the salient features of the complaint in a register maintained for this purpose, acknowledge receipt of the complaint and forthwith secure compliance with this Court's order.”
3. “The CEO/Collector of all the Districts in the States and territories shall scrutinize the action taken by all the implementing agencies within their jurisdiction to ensure compliance with this court's orders and report to the Chief Secretary.”
4. “The responsibility for implementation of the order of this Court shall be that of the CEO/Collector. The Chief Secretary will ensure compliance with the order of this Court.”
5. “Dr. N.C. Saxena, former Planning Secretary, Government of India, and Mr. S.R. Shankaran, former Secretary, Rural Development, Government of India, shall function as Commissioner's of this Court for the purpose of looking into any grievance that my persist after the above-mentioned grievance resolution procedure has been exhausted.”
6. “On the Commissioner's recommending a course of action to ensure compliance with this Court's order, the State Government/ UT administrations, shall forthwith act upon such recommendation and report compliance.”
7. “The Commissioner's shall be at liberty to take the assistance of individuals and reliable organizations in the State and Union Territories. All officials are directed to fully cooperate with such persons/organizations, to bring about effective monitoring and implementation of the order of this Court.”
8. “The Gram Sabhas are empowered to monitor the implementation of the various schemes and have access to relevant information relating to, inter alia, selection of beneficiaries and the disbursement of benefits. The Gram Sabhas can raise their grievances in the manner set out above and the redressal of the grievances shall be done accordingly.”

If the above mentioned scheme is implemented in letter and spirit, it will prove a mile stone in the history of India. For implementation of the scheme besides co-operation of administrative machinery and public participation at the grass root level is highly required to wipe out the food problem specially, the persons living below poverty line. If the Food Security Problem is solved, the down trodden persons will be able to lead a dignified life. It will also be helpful to fulfil the dreams of Constitution makers i.e. the State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life.

Author
Dr. Hari Mohan Mittal,
Professor - School of Law

Saturday, 9 April 2016

Human Legal Rights Violation - Custodial violence & Custodial Death in India


Custodial torture is a calculated assault on human dignity and whenever human dignity wounded, civilization takes a step backwards. Using any form of torture for extracting any kind of information would neither be right nor just nor fair, hence, impermissible, and offensive to Article 21 of the Constitution. A crime suspect, declared the court, may be interrogated and subjected to sustained and scientific interrogation in the manner determined by the provisions of law, but, no such suspect can be tortured or subjected to third degree methods or eliminated with a view to eliciting information, extracting a confession or deriving knowledge about his accomplices, weapons etc. His constitutional right cannot be abridged except in the manner permitted by law.


D. K. BASU v. STATE OF WEST BENGAL 2015(8) SCC 744

The SC in this case observed that the cases of custodial torture and custodial death have increased day by day. The case came up before the court through a writ petition under Article 32 of Constitution of India by a NGO. The SC of India developed a custodial jurisprudence in   D. K. BASU v. STATE OF WEST BENGAL (AIR 1997 SC 610).The Supreme Court  considered  it appropriate to issue the following requirements to be followed in all cases of arrest or detention till legal provisions are made in that behalf as preventive measures: 

1. The police personnel carrying out the arrest and handling the interrogation of the arrestee should bear accurate, visible and clear identification and name tags with their designations. The particulars of all such police personnel who handle interrogation of the arrestee must be recorded in a register. 
2. That the police officer carrying out the arrest of the arrestee shall prepare a memo of arrest at the time of arrest and such memo shall be attested by at least one witness, who may be either a member of the family of the arrestee or a respectable person of the locality from where the arrest is made. It shall also be counter signed by the arrestee and shall contain the time and date of arrest. 
3. A person who has been arrested or detained and is being held in custody in a police station or interrogation centre or other lock-up, shall be entitled to have one friend or relative or other person known to him or having interest in his welfare being informed, as soon as practicable, that he has been arrested and is being detained at the particular place, unless the attesting witness of the memo of arrest is himself such a friend or a relative of the arrestee. 
4. The time, place of arrest and venue of custody of an arrestee must be notified by the police where the next friend or relative of the arrestee lives outside the district or town through the Legal Aid Organisation in the District and the police station of the area concerned telegraphically within a period of 8 to 12 hours after the arrest.  
5. The person arrested must be made aware of this right to have someone informed of his arrest or detention as soon as he is put under arrest or is detained. 
6. An entry must be made in the diary at the place of detention regarding the arrest of the person which shall also disclose the name of the next friend of the person who has been informed of the arrest and the names and particulars of the police officials in whose custody the arrestee is. 
7. The arrestee should, where he so requests, be also examined at the time of his arrest and major and minor injuries, if any present on his/her body, must be recorded at that time. The "Inspection Memo" must be signed both by the arrestee and the police officer affecting the arrest and its copy provided to the arrestee. 
8. The arrestee should be subjected to medical examination by a trained doctor every 48 hours during his detention in custody by a doctor on the panel of approved doctors appointed by Director, Health Services of the concerned State or Union Territory. Director, Health Services should prepare such a penal for all Tehsils and Districts as well. 
9. Copies of all the documents including the memo of arrest, referred to above, should be sent to the illaqa Magistrate for his record. 
10. The arrestee may be permitted to meet his lawyer during interrogation, though not throughout the interrogation. 
11. A police control room should be provided at all district and state headquarters, where information regarding the arrest and the place of custody of the arrestee shall be communicated by the officer causing the arrest, within 12 hours of effecting the arrest and at the police control room it should be displayed on a conspicuous notice board.

This case was followed by seven subsequent orders of the SC and emphasised on effective implementation of its directions issued in the 1st D. K. BASU. In recent times there is an increasing concern of the international community above the practice of torture of prisoners and detenus. Torture is a well established too, of investigation of the Indian Police despite its ruling in earlier cases and growing incidence of torture and death in police custody. In this case the court looked into the recommendations made by Amicus curiae.

India is party to the International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenants on Economics Social and Cultural Rights. Section 2 (d) of the Protection of Human Rights Acts defines human rights and included in its ambit of both covenants.  The establishment of National Human Rights Commissions of India was a step towards fulfilling its commitment at international level. It is disturbing to note that even at the 22 years of the establishment of NHRC, a few Indian states have failed to established State Human Rights Commission and thus ignore the section 21 of the Protection of Human Rights Acts. The NHRC has been Advocating for the establishment of SHRC by all the states so that every citizen of the country has easy and inexpensive recourse to redress the human rights violation.

In this case the court issued the direction to the governments of Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura and Nagaland for early establishment of SHRC. The court also issued direction for fulfilling of the existing positions in all the existing SHRCs. It is important to note here that the court should have also looked into the effectiveness of the commission and its jurisdiction. In many cases it has been found that NHRC is receiving complaints from specific states even though SHRC was established in that state but somehow failed to generate trust among the people about its independence and impartiality. The 3rd recommendation of Amicus curiae was regarding the establishment of human rights court for each district as stipulated under section 30 of PHRA. No doubt the establishment of human rights court would help in speedy disposal of the cases related with human rights violation. Unfortunately till date only the state of Sikkim has compiled with the section 30 of PHRA and the other states are observing complete silence in this regard. The court did not give any dead line for the establishment of human rights court but suggested that the state government can take up the matter with the Chief justice of High Court of their respective states and examine the possibility of establishment of human rights court in their states. Apart from these recommendations the court also issued directions for the installation of CCTV cameras in all police stations within 2 years, appointment of nonofficial visitors to prisons and police station and deployment of at least two women constable sin each police station where ever such deployment is considered necessary. The court also directed the state authorities for initiating of an inquiry to establish culpability in custodial death and an appropriate prosecution for the commission of such offences as disclosed by the inquiry report.

The Supreme Court being the guardian of the Constitution it is its duty to protect human rights of the citizens. Custodial violence , torture and custodial  death strikes a blow to the rule of law which demands that the police authorities should take care of accused persons while they are under police custody. Any form of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, would fall within the inhibition of Article 21, whether it occurred during investigation, interrogation or otherwise.

Author
Dr. Hari Mohan Mittal,
Professor - School of Law


Thursday, 7 April 2016

“Marketing the Un marketed” - A workshop on Rural Marketing


The 7th of April 2016 staged a workshop on Rural Marketing titled “Marketing the Un marketed” at the RNB Global University, Bikaner, for the students of Management & Commerce. In conference Halls and in Conclaves we may be a technologically growing Global economy, but on paper and in the policy making forums we remain a country with 75% as rural economy and it is from there that we steer drive our growth in the form of labour, raw material and exports. With this premise the resource person Dr. R.C.Mathur, Faculty of Management Studies, Institute of Rural Management, Jaipur, put a lot of thought behind devising a feasible reason, which could be related to students in their language, making them understand the need and importance of Rural Marketing in India. His emphasis was to crystallise answers to certain paradoxical questions like can NGO’s, SME’s, SHG, PACS, market our products and services in Rural India?

Students understood how in recent years rural marketing has acquired significance as the overall growth of the economy is resulting into substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural communities. With Green Revolution at the peak of all ventures, the rural areas are consuming a large quantity of industrial and urban manufactured products. This has given birth to a special marketing strategy, namely, Rural Marketing. A large number of businesses are involved in the marketing of various products in the rural areas of India and elsewhere

Can we as academicians, students, and non-government organisations work together to study, follow and promote HOLISTIC Rural Marketing that shall ensure socioeconomic development of the rural India?

Can we generate employment opportunities for today’s youth by promoting and working in Rural Businesses in Rural India?

The aim of this workshop was a little further and beyond the explanation of Rural Marketing in the books. The main objective being to develop a strong foundation of applied knowledge, concepts, approaches, and analytical skills in the participants for successful marketing of products and services to rural consumers. The workshop lead to the clarity of some very important aspects of Microfinancing and Agri-Marketing.

The two day workshop not only helped visions enhance for students but also made them understand that a very big and palpable job market awaits them a few years down the line, where we as India may not have to depend completely on FDI for jobs and overall growth.

Wednesday, 6 April 2016

Financial Tools for strategic Decision Making in Corporate World


As part of the academic requirements every educational institute organises subject workshops to expose candidates to practical aspects and practical applicability of the theoretical knowledge they learn. This enables to bring students at par with the level of professional excellence and enhance their adaptability skills, to nurture their ability to embrace change as an indispensable ingredient of growth in a global economy.

On the 6th and 7th of April 2016 subject oriented workshops were organised at the RNB Global University, Bikaner, for the students of BBA and BCOM.

The 6th of April 2016 witnessed the first workshop on "Cost and Management Accounting" for the students of BBA and BCOM. The workshop was convened in two parts, the first half of the day, the participants were students of BBA and in the second half the participants were the students of BCOM.

The resource person Dr. Satinder Kaur laid emphasis on the reason why cost and accounting no longer remains just a subject, but has with ease found a place for itself in the corridors of strategic decision making in business houses as Cost and Management Accounting. It is the word Management which as a prefix has brought meaning to the whole concept as a financial tool of strategic decision making.

The objective of the workshop was to clarify the meaning of Ratio Analysis as a process of determining and interpreting numerical relationships based on financial statements. The students understood the role of this analysis aiding the management to find out the overall as well as the department wise efficiency of the firm on the basis of available financial information. Further the analysis also enables the calculation not only of the present earning capacity of business enterprises but also the estimation of the future earning capacity as well.


It can be concluded that the workshop was very well defined and a very simply presented picture of how a standard set of accounting policies, valuation norms and disclosure requirements can be comprehended, on the basis of which financial statements can be prepared. The take home for students from the workshop was “how financial statements can be made more meaningful and comparable to arrive at strategic production, expansion, marketing, recruitment budget allocations and decisions at the end of the financial year and before the launch of new products”

Thursday, 10 March 2016

Careers after High School Class 12th - A Necessity or a Choice


Despite the successful market economy reforms and economic growth of recent years, the situation of the placement of Fresher’s and their further growth in their respective field of choice remains a paradoxical issue. Unemployment and unfilled jobs are a reflection of the skills mismatch between workforce supply and demand.

Young people must therefore be given the assistance they need to decide on their future careers, based on an adequate overview of the changing educational, training and employment markets and awareness of their own interests and strengths. This will help the candidates bridge the gap between what they know, what they want and what they can do.

The intention in building a career guidance system is to improve young people’s knowledge of their own skills and offer comprehensive vocational information and practical experience in selected companies. Equipped in this way, young students at the transition from middle school to high school are able to make more informed career choices and to plan their own careers more knowledgeably. The potential impacts include reducing youth unemployment and raising income, thereby reducing poverty.

At this stage it is crucial for the students to understand that subject choices like the science Stream, Commerce stream, Arts stream, do not any longer restrict their growth prospects to limited fields like Engineering, Medicine, Law, Management(Fields defined by the book). All these courses have unlimited options and It is just that the students need to prepare themselves understanding that for every option that they chose they have alternatives, and also that there is no defined process to reach their aim. As per the need of the hour there are various bifurcated routes to achieve the aim without having to deviate from the main stream, that they belong to. Another important aspect related to the career choice is  how to seek admission in the  best college for engineering or be it for  law  or management. Getting admission to the top colleges in India has been very tough these days and for this its very important that the student should be aware of his capabilities and his interest and accordingly choose the field where he would like to purse his career and also can get admission in leading colleges of his choice rather than any colleges. As doing a course from an top institute also plays an important and vital role towards getting exposure and pursing the desired goal.

Further to this students must clarify as many queries as they have about What Next as this will help students in making better educational and career choices. Among other things, career guidance helps students not only understand information on high school course offerings, career options, the type of academic and occupational training needed to succeed in the workplace, and post secondary opportunities that are associated with their field of interest, but also gives an insight into how can they scrutinize what they have been told , and satisfy themselves about the authenticity of the same. Career guidance also often provides teachers, administrators, and parents with information they can use to support students' career exploration and post secondary educational opportunities.

Thus right career guidance works out to be the pedestal which will step by step lead students to taking correct decisions and clarity of path for further growth.

Author
Ritu Sharma
Convener – Center For Leadership and Development

Thursday, 3 March 2016

Is “All India Bar Examination” within the confines of Law


What is AIBE?
AIBE stands for All India Bar Examination.

What is the objective of the AIBE?
All India Bar Examination was passed by the Legal Education Committee and the members of the Bar Council of India at duly constituted meetings on April 10, 2010 and April 30, 2010.

The objective of The All India Bar Examination (AIBE) is to examine an advocate's capability to practice the profession of law in India by assessing the skills at a basic level. It intends to set a minimum benchmark for admission to the practice of law and addresses a candidate’s analytical abilities & understanding basic knowledge of law. After passing the All India Bar Examination candidate is awarded "Certificate of Practice" by the Bar Council of India. AIBE is conducted in 40 cities all across India. Examination pattern is of multiple choice questions and is an open book exam.

Why it is in the news these days?
All India Bar Examination (AIBE) is in the news these days because a petition was filed in 2013 by R. Nagabushana in which he challenged the Bar Council of India’s power to conduct the All India Bar Examination. The petition demands quashing of BCI’s notification, contending that it takes away the statutory right bestowed upon an eligible person to practice law.

Current status of the Petition?
The Supreme Court on Tuesday i.e. 1st March, 2016 observed that the right to practice law is a Fundamental Right for LL.B. degree holders. The Supreme Court also observed that the introduction of All India Bar Examination to acquire a license has the effect of negating this right.

“The right to practice law is there in the Act (the Advocates Act). When (Bar Council of India) says that a person will not be able to practice law without clearing the exam, and then you are taking away the same right,” the bench comprising Chief Justice T.S. Thakur and Justice U.U. Lalit was quoted as saying.

“To say that one has to pass an examination for practicing as an advocate will negate his or her right to profession. He has a fundamental right to practice. Conditions can’t be put after enrollment. If, at all, it is required, the condition should be put at the enrollment stage,” the bench further stated.

The Bench was of the view that such inclusion of an exam needed an amendment to the existing law. It did not agree with the Bar Council’s logic, asking whether the regulatory body has “become a law unto yourself.”

Soon after issuing of the notification, Mr. Shamnad Basheer, founder of SpicyIP reminded the decision in the case of V. Sudeer v. Bar Council of India, which he stated does not permit a bar exam by the BCI without an amendment to the Advocates Act. In the case, the Court had categorically held that any additional eligibility criteria for the practice of law over and above what was mentioned in Section 24 of the Advocates Act was unconstitutional.

Petitions challenging the inspection have been filed earlier also in the Madras High Court & Gujarat High Court as well. At the Madras High Court PIL claiming that under Chapter IV of the Advocates Act, BCI could not describe additional prerequisites to enrolment and practice was filed by Chennai Advocate M. Radhakrishnan. He had contended that BCI was violating Article 14 of the Constitution, which promises equality once law.

In a significant development, the Supreme Court on 2nd March, 2016 issued a notice to the Bar Council of India in a petition challenging the Constitutional validity of the All India Bar Examination and posted the matter before a 3-judge Bench.

A Division bench of Chief Justice of India TS Thakur and Justice UU Lalit, however, made it clear that it is not averse to having an exam. However, the Court will examine if the existing system is within the confines of law, and if not, seek to strengthen it.

Author
Mohit chauhan

Sources: BusinessStandard

Saturday, 27 February 2016

Unknown Amazing facts about Indian scientist C.V. Raman




With passion to share knowledge and to educate the bright minds of India on this National Science Day i.e 28th February RNB Global University, Bikaner shares the amazing unknown facts about Indian scientist C.V. Raman and his research. 

1. Sir C. V Raman was just 14 years old when he started attending his B.A Class at Presidency College.  
2. C. V Raman full name was “Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman”. 
3. C.V. Raman was the first Asian and first non-White to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences. 
4. On a sea voyage to Europe in 1921, Raman curiously noticed the blue color of the glaciers and the Mediterranean. He was passionate to discover the reason for the blue color. Once Raman returned to India, he performed many experiments regarding the scattering of light from water and transparent blocks of ice. According to the results, he established the scientific explanation for the blue color of sea-water and sky.
5. Not known by many but Raman had a collaborator in this experiment. K. S. Krishnan, Raman's co-worker, did not share the Nobel Prize due to some professional differences between the two. However, Raman strongly mentioned Krishnan's contributions in his Nobel acceptance speech.
6. The ‘Raman Effect’ is considered very significant in analyzing the molecular structure of chemical compounds. After a decade of its discovery, the structure of about 2000 compounds had been studied. Thanks to the invention of the laser, the ‘Raman Effect’ has proved to be a very useful tool for scientists.
7. It is immensely surprising that Raman used equipment worth merely Rs.200 to make this discovery. The Raman Effect is now examined with the help of equipment worth almost millions of rupees.
8. The Nobel laurete physicist C. V. Raman was the first to be appointed to the post of Palit Professor of Physics in 1917 at the University of Calcutta.
9. In 1932, Raman and Suri Bhagavantam discovered the quantum photon spin. This discovery further proved the quantum nature of light.
10. After the independence of India, he was selected as the first national professor of India.
11. Raman was not only an expert on light, he also experimented with acoustics. Raman was the first person to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of Indian drums such as tabla and mridangam.